Austrians Lack Basic Knowledge of Holocaust, 'Reluctant to Take Responsibility,' Survey Finds

Results are 'disturbing' seeing as some of the key perpetrators of the Nazi genocide were Austrian, U.S. Jewish organization says

Send in e-mailSend in e-mail
File photo: Visitors at an exhibition, look at Nazi flags and banners bearing Swastikas, at Yad Vashem World Holocaust Remembrance Center in Jerusalem, May 1, 2019.
File photo: Visitors at an exhibition, look at Nazi flags and banners bearing Swastikas, at Yad Vashem World Holocaust Remembrance Center in Jerusalem, May 1, 2019.Credit: Ronen Zvulun/Reuters

A new survey has found that many Austrians lack basic knowledge of the Nazi genocide — even though the notorious Mauthausen concentration camp was just outside of the city of Linz, and some of the key perpetrators of the Holocaust were Austrian.

The study released Thursday by the New York-based Conference on Jewish Material Claims Against Germany, which negotiates compensation for victims, showed that 56 percent of Austrian respondents did not know 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust. Some 36 percent believed 2 million or fewer were killed — a belief that rose to 42 percent among younger people aged 18-34.

Claims Conference CEO Greg Schneider said the numbers were in line with the first two surveys done on knowledge in the United States and Canada, but were more surprising coming from Austria.

>> Divergent lessons of the Holocaust widen the gap between Israel and American Jews | Opinion ■ Why Matteo Salvini won't celebrate Italy's defeat of fascism | Opinion

"The trends are the same, which indicate a really disturbing lack of knowledge about the Holocaust, but one of the things different about this survey is that it's done in a place where the Holocaust occurred," he said in a phone interview from New York.

The results come amid ongoing concerns over Austria's far-right Freedom Party, Chancellor Sebastian Kurz's junior governing coalition partner, which was led by former Nazis in the postwar period.

Though it's officially distanced itself from that past, rhetoric from party members continues to evoke the Nazi era. Just last week, the deputy mayor of Braunau am Inn — Adolf Hitler's hometown — left the party after writing a poem comparing migrants to rats, similar to the way the Nazis characterized Jews.

And on the weekend, party leader Heinz-Christian Strache, also the country's vice chancellor, created an uproar saying his party was fighting against a "replacement of the native population" or Bevoelkerungsaustausch — a term used by European far-right groups that is also reminiscent of the Nazi terminology.

"The greatest fear is that something like the Holocaust could happen again, so I think it's too narrow to limit the concerns to Austria," Schneider said. "Yes, there are troubling signs like the mayor (of Braunau am Inn), but since just last month there's been a shooting in a mosque in New Zealand, bombings in churches in Sri Lanka, and now shootings again at a synagogue in the United States — one of the key takeaways from the Holocaust is that it started with words, which quickly lead to deeds."

Austrians were asked about the Freedom Party in the survey and were equally split, with 43 percent seeing it favorably and 43 percent unfavorably. Thirty six percent said they considered parties like the Freedom Party patriotic, while 42 percent said such parties were nationalist and xenophobic.

File photo: Austria's Chancellor Sebastian Kurz and Vice Chancellor Heinz-Christian Strache attend a news conference in Vienna, Austria, April 30, 2019.Credit: Leonhard Foeger/Reuters

Last year, a prominent Freedom Party member stepped down after it was revealed he was in an Austrian student fraternity that promoted neo-Nazi ideals, including singing songs with anti-Semitic lyrics. Asked about such fraternities, 16 percent said they should be able to keep singing their traditional songs even if they were anti-Semitic, while 70 percent said they should not be able to practice anti-Semitic traditions.

Efraim Zuroff, head of the Nazi-hunting Simon Wiesenthal Center's Jerusalem office, said a striking result in the survey was that only 13 percent said Austria was a Holocaust perpetrator, while 68 percent said it was both perpetrator and victim, and 12 percent said it was a victim.

"Given the fact that approximately a third of the most culpable Holocaust criminals were Austrians, that says a lot about the Holocaust distortion in Austria and the reluctance to take any responsibility," said Zuroff, who was not involved in the study, in a telephone interview from Jerusalem.

Indeed, while 79 percent of respondents knew Hitler was an Austrian, only 14 percent knew Adolf Eichmann, who played a major role in the Holocaust, was German-Austrian.

Schneider noted that 42 percent also said they weren't familiar with Mauthausen, even though the concentration camp was located in Austria.

"It's as if you had a person in Texas who had never heard of the Alamo, it's just shocking... it's in their back yard," he said.

In a positive sign, however, Schneider said 82 percent of respondents said the Holocaust should be taught in schools.

The survey of 1,000 adults, which was released to coincide with Israel's observation of Holocaust Remembrance Day, was conducted between February 22 and March 1 with a margin of error of plus or minus 3.1 percentage points.

Click the alert icon to follow topics:



Automatic approval of subscriber comments.
From $1 for the first month

Already signed up? LOG IN


Charles Lindbergh addressing an America First Committee rally on October 3, 1941.

Ken Burns’ Brilliant ‘The U.S. and the Holocaust’ Has Only One Problem

The projected rise in sea level on a beach in Haifa over the next 30 years.

Facing Rapid Rise in Sea Levels, Israel Could Lose Large Parts of Its Coastline by 2050

Tal Dilian.

As Israel Reins in Its Cyberarms Industry, an Ex-intel Officer Is Building a New Empire

Queen Elizabeth II, King Charles III and a British synagogue.

How the Queen’s Death Changes British Jewry’s Most Distinctive Prayer

Newly appointed Israeli ambassador to Chile, Gil Artzyeli, poses for a group picture alongside Rabbi Yonatan Szewkis, Chilean deputy Helia Molina and Gerardo Gorodischer, during a religious ceremony in a synagogue in Vina del Mar, Chile last week.

Chile Community Leaders 'Horrified' by Treatment of Israeli Envoy

Queen Elizabeth attends a ceremony at Windsor Castle, in June 2021.

Over 120 Countries, but Never Israel: Queen Elizabeth II's Unofficial Boycott