The U.S. government for the first time on Friday formally accused Russia of a campaign of cyberattacks against Democratic Party organizations ahead of the Nov. 8 presidential election.
- Are Putin and Wikileaks Working for Trump?
- The Day Putin and Assad Recapture Aleppo
- Report: U.S. Probing Suspected Russian Operation to Subvert Election
- How Russia Is Tampering With the U.S. Vote
"The U.S. Intelligence Community (USIC) is confident that the Russian Government directed the recent compromises of e-mails from U.S. persons and institutions, including from U.S. political organizations," the Department of Homeland Security and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence said in a statement on Friday.
" We believe, based on the scope and sensitivity of these efforts, that only Russia's senior-most officials could have authorized these activities. These thefts and disclosures are intended to interfere with the U.S. election process," the statement said.
U.S. intelligence officials concluded weeks ago that the Russian government was conducting or orchestrating cyberattacks against the Democratic National Committee and the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, possibly to disrupt or discredit the election, in which Democrat Hillary Clinton faces Republican Donald Trump.
A Kremlin spokesman called the U.S. allegations "nonsense", the Interfax news agency reported.
The Obama administration's decision to blame Russia for the attacks is the latest downward turn in Washington's relations with Moscow, which are under strain over Russia's actions in Syria and Ukraine and in cyberspace.
Also on Friday, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry said Russian and Syrian actions in the Syrian civil war, including bombings of hospitals, "beg for" a war crimes investigation.
In addition, a U.S. intelligence official said Friday that Russia is moving short-range nuclear-capable missiles into Kaliningrad, a tiny Russian enclave between Poland and Lithuania, confirming Estonian news reports.
Change in tone
Still, until Friday, the administration had avoided publicly naming Russia in connection with the mounting civilian deaths in Syria or the cyberattacks.
The statement did not blame the Russian government for hacking attempts against state election systems, but said "scanning and probing" of those systems originated in most cases from servers operated by a Russian company.
However, a Department of Homeland Security spokesman told Reuters that U.S. officials have concluded that the hacking attacks or probes of state voter registration systems are "consistent with Russian motivations."
Concern has grown about the reliability of the U.S. voting system as a result of the breach, and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump has called the system "rigged," but without providing specific evidence.
U.S. intelligence officials have said there is no evidence that voting recording systems have been manipulated.
Naming Russia as the actor behind the cyberattacks on political organizations falls short of more punitive measures the United States has taken against other countries for cyber intrusions.
Republican Senator Cory Gardner, chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on East Asia, the Pacific and International Cybersecurity, said he planned to introduce sanctions legislation.
Earlier this year, a U.S. grand jury indicted seven Iranians employed by two Iran-based computer companies on hacking charges into U.S. financial sector. In 2015, Obama announced sanctions against North Korea for hacking into Sony Pictures. In 2014, the United States charged five Chinese military hackers for economic espionage aimed at U.S. nuclear, metals and solar industries.
A senior U.S. official said the administration is considering other retaliatory steps against Russia, but he declined to identify them. Those steps may remain covert, the official said.
The Democratic National Committee publicly disclosed intrusions into its systems in June, blaming Russia for the attacks. Leaks of the committees' emails from pro-transparency group WikiLeaks soon followed, demonstrating what appeared to be favoritism for Clinton over another Democrat, Bernie Sanders, by committee chairwoman Debbie Wasserman Schultz. Wasserman Schultz, a Florida congresswoman, stepped down.
In Friday's statement, the government said disclosures of emails by WikiLeaks and hacking entities known as DCLeaks and Guccifer 2.0 "are consistent with the methods and motivations of Russian-directed efforts."
WikiLeaks has not identified the source of its leaks and criticized those who have claimed it was Russia. Guccifer 2.0 has identified itself as a Romanian hacker, but U.S. intelligence officials have concluded it and DCLeaks are both a front for Russian spy units.