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The Muslim Brotherhood is a social and political Islamist movement, founded in 1928 in Egypt by Islamic scholar Hassan al-Banna. Currently based in Egypt, the movement has a presence in 70 countries.
Throughout its history, the Brotherhood has made several unsuccessful attempts to gain political control, and as a result, its activities have been repeatedly banned and its members oppressed. In the wake of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Brotherhood was disbanded by the new Egyptian government and its members arrested. Brotherhood activities have also been suppressed in Syria, following an assassination attempt on Assad in 1980, and most harshly during the 1982 Hama Massacre, when Sunni Islamic groups, attempting to fight against Assad's regime were brutally put down. The death toll from the massacre is disputed, but estimates of victims (mostly civilian) range from 1-40,000.
In April 2011, following the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood launched the Freedom and Justice Party. The party's political platform is based on Islamic law, and is in favor of free-market capitalism. Although neither Copts nor women can attain the post of Prime Minister according to the party's platform, they can serve in the cabinet.
In October 2011 following a prisoner swap between Hamas and Israel that released Gilad Shalit along with over 1,000 Palestinian prisoners, representatives of the Muslim Brotherhood visited the Gaza strip—the first Brotherhood delegation to do so. "We came to participate in the joy at the release of brothers. We are proud of them," said Brotherhood chief Goma Amin. "Resistance proved itself." Meeting with representatives of Hamas, the visit marked a major shift in relations between Cairo and the Palestinians since Mubarak's fall. In December 2011, Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh in turn visited Cairo, to great fanfare.
In January 2012, speculation arose as to whether a Brotherhood government would bring the 1979 peace treaty between Egypt and Israel to a referendum. Dr. Rashad Bayoumi, the deputy head of the Brotherhood, was quoted as saying that he"will not recognize Israel under any circumstances" because "We are talking about an occupation entity and a criminal enemy." Representatives of the Brotherhood, however, have assured American officials that the group does not intend to revoke the peace treaty with Israel.
In the first stages of the Egyptian elections that began in November 2011, the Muslim Brotherhood garnered over 65 percent of the vote. Persecuted under Mubarak's regime, the Brotherhood is expected to dominate Egypt's new parliamentary government, a body whose primary task will be to draft Egypt's new constitution.
Reporters Without Borders says death of Islamist president was barely mentioned, with the same 42-word government statement running in the majority of Egyptian papers
Egyptian state television reports Morsi fainted after a court session and died afterwards
Security agents turned reporters away from funeral and refused to allow burial at family cemetery ■ Muslim Brotherhood and UN calling for investigation into death
The militants were killed hours after a roadside bomb struck a tourist bus near the Giza Pyramids and wounded at least 17 people
'The cell is truly empty, it has nothing at all,' says Yassin Mohamed, who spent five years behind bars due to his involvement in anti-government protests
President Trump seeks terrorist-organization status for the 90-year-old Muslim missionary movement, which for decades has renounced violence
The defendants were found guilty of taking part in a bombing which killed Hisham Barakat, a prominent official who prosecuted several Muslim Brotherhood members
Leaders were sentenced in a retrial over violence during the overthrow of Islamist president Mohammed Morsi in 2013
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Several mass trials of Islamists that yielded dozens of death sentences have been held in Egypt since 2013, when the military, then led by President Abdel Fattah al-Sissi, removed a president from the Muslim Brotherhood
David Satterfield's longtime experience with the Egyptian military, heading the Multinational Force and Observers in Sinai, puts him at good odds for the position
Mohammed Badie has also been sentenced to death in separate trials since his 2013 arrest
The charges range from murder to damaging public property, although more than 600 sit-in participants were killed by the Egyptian military
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Al-Sissi's only challenger is Moussa Mustafa Moussa, a little known politician who joined the race in the last minute to spare the government the embarrassment of a one-candidate election
Saudi government will dismiss anyone working in education who sympathizes with the banned group, the education minister said
Freelance journalists May al-Sabbagh and Ahmed Moustafa were working on a report on the historic Alexandria tramway for the Al Bayan newspaper based in the United Arab Emirates
President Abdel-Fattah al-Sissi's government claims that the media 'undermine the security and safety of the nation' comes in the days preceding the election
In bid to attract liberal voters, Simon Salama will stand for the Ennahda party in municipal elections. Muslim party rejects criticism from religious circles
Egypt's army reports that 16 Islamic militants were killed and over 30 suspects arrested, as part of an operation against Islamic militants
Egypt's former president, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was overthrown in 2013, convicted of publicly making statements that were inciting and expressing toward the court
The fourteen were charged with attacking government buildings, planning to kill public figures and security officials, and joining the Muslim Brotherhood
Shafiq fled Egypt after losing to the Muslim Brotherhood's Mohammed Morsi in 2011, but now says he is ready to return 'in the coming days'
Critics contend the government’s country-wide campaign against Islamists has pushed some young people toward the Islamic State group affiliate
Mohammed Badie was convicted in 2016 for participation in violet riots following President Morsi's ousting in 2013
By detonating explosive devices and being positioned on higher ground, Muslim Brotherhood-linked group inflicted heavy casualties on Egyptian security forces
Ajnad Misr, or Soldiers of Egypt, was a group that emerged in January 2014 and targeted security forces in and around the Egyptian capital of Cairo
Fifteen others were sentenced to life in prison in the same case while 77 were given 15-year sentences with hard labor
Morsi is already serving a 20-year sentence after being convicted for the killing of protesters during demonstrations in 2012