A century ago, an odd Jew, Oskar Goldberg by name, lived and worked in Berlin. He was a rabbi, a physician, a kabbalist and biblical commentator. Formally he was affiliated with Orthodox Jewry, but his religious teachings were substantially different from those of other rabbis. In 1925, he published a book, “The Reality of the Hebrews” (in German), which presented a scandalous interpretation of the Mosaic Torah. According to Goldberg, the Torah was originally not a monotheistic work: It does not deny the existence of other gods, rather it assumes that the gods of the Gentiles are real forces that operate in the world.