Vikings Were Fearless. Except When It Was Too Cold

Greenland was balmy when the Vikings invaded, a new study based on isotopes in flies has proven, and they left as the glaciers bore down

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Aerial view of the Greenland ice sheet from a helicopter.
Aerial view of the Greenland ice sheet from a helicopter.Credit: G. Everett Lasher / Northwestern
Ruth Schuster
Ruth Schuster
A 21st-century reproduction of Erik the Red’s house on his estate (known as Brattahlíð) in present day Qassiarsuk, Greenland. Credit: G. Everett Lasher / Northwestern
An up-close look at a chironomid’s head capsule(center) under a microscope.The Northwestern team isolates these exoskeletons from sediment cores collected in southern Greenland.Credit: G. Everett Lasher / Northwestern



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