Having fans is one thing. Having hordes stampede your tomb not only breathing but bringing germs and clouds of dust is another.
After a 10-year project, the Getty Conservation Institute announced Tuesday it has finished the job of conserving the all-too-popular Tomb of Tutankhamun in Egypt. The immense project was done in collaboration with Egypt’s Ministry of Antiquities, Getty said.
The boy ruler’s tomb had been discovered in 1922 and – a rarity for antiquities – even after nearly 3,350 years was almost entirely intact and replete with grave goods. The media frenzy that followed its discovery by the British archaeologist Howard Carter was unprecedented, Getty says. Everyone from scientists to journalists to the curious began to throng the tomb, and never really stopped.
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There were so many things in the tomb Carter and his people spent a decade clearing them. The objects were then displayed in various major Western museums. (There is a plan to regather and show thousands of “King Tut” objects together, at the future Grand Egyptian Museum of archaeology; its opening is now planned in part for this year.)
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Still in situ is the mummy of Tutankhamun (also spelled Tutankhamen) himself, lying in an air-free case. His sarcophagus is still in the tomb too, with the lid next to it on the floor. Also still intact are the extraordinary wall paintings depicting Tut’s life and death. Oh, and baboons galore, which were deified at the time.
The beautiful wall pictures are where the rub lies. When people enter a sealed space for the first time in thousands of years, they instantly start to cause change. Their breath is humid. They bear bacteria and fungi. The result can be that in very little time the walls start to disintegrate and their paintings, preserved for thousands of years, start to decay – though one might not notice immediately thanks to the dust one brings in, which settles on the walls.
On top of that is damage caused by incautious cameramen – Getty’s note that the space to work and maneuver in is tight.
Interestingly, brown spots on the wall paintings turned out to be old too, not the result of the tomb’s discovery and exposure. They were there when Carter first entered the tomb and haven’t grown since, based on photos from the 1920s.
“To confirm this finding, DNA and chemical analysis were undertaken and the spots were confirmed to be microbiological but dead and thus no longer a threat,” Getty stated. Its restorers left the brown spots untouched, on the grounds that they ran deep, into the paint, so removing them could cause other damage to the spectacular murals.
In short, the project addresses the problem of the tomb’s vulnerability and the disappointing experience for the tourists who do visit. They may romantically expect to be alone with the memory of the great if short-lived pharaoh, but find themselves jostling for space and oxygen with dozens of people, and unable to see much because of the lousy lighting.
New barriers have been built to keep visitors off vulnerable spots. While the new restrictions may frustrate some people, Getty describes improvements to the site: new walkways and a viewing platform, finally some signs and lighting, and an air filtration and ventilation system to mitigate the unwanted emissions from their lungs, the undesirable germs on their persons and the entirely undesirable dust on their feet.
While Getty worked painstakingly on the restoration and conservation, other scientists have been busy investigating other aspects of Tutankhamunm, even after all these years. High-tech scans of the tomb showed that, no, there were no secret burial chambers as people had fondly hoped.
It is true that pictures in his burial place show Tut riding off to war. However, modern analysis of his mummified remains indicate that the pharaoh was a sickly, limping young man with a deformed foot, who, among other things, also suffered from malaria. Some archaeologists argue that it’s impossible to say who exactly wore the leather armor found in the tomb; it may not have been him and should not be seen as evidence of the teenage king's military prowess. Also found in the tomb were canes that the young leader seemed to have needed in order to walk.
The pharaoh would die aged just 19 in about the year 1323 B.C.E., and some suspect the combination of inbreeding, bone deformity and malaria parasites proved fatal. But nearly 3,350 years later, even molecular forensics hasn’t figured out exactly why.