'I Am Joseph, Your Brother’

The turnaround in the Vatican’s view of Judaism is credited to one person: Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. Upon his ascent to the papacy in 1958, when he chose the name John XXIII, he took it with the words: 'I am Joseph your brother.'

Theodor Herzl, in his efforts to enlist international support for the Zionist project, managed to obtain an audience with Pope Pius X and to set forth his...