On October 30, 1910, 12 members of the Jewish community of Shiraz, Iran, were killed and the city’s Jewish quarter plundered, as angry mobs responded to an accusation that Jews had ritually murdered a Muslim girl.

Records of a Jewish presence in Shiraz, a large city in southern Persia, go back to the 10th century, and in the 12th century the traveler Benjamin of Tudela reported a community of some...