June 19, 1906 is the birthdate of Ernst Boris Chain, the biochemist who won the 1945 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his research on penicillin. Chain shared the prize with his research partner, Howard Florey, and Alexander Fleming, who in 1928 first identified penicillin and recognized its bacteria-killing quality. Chain and Florey isolated the active ingredient in Penicillium notatum mold...