Alexei Rontin, an employee of the Israel Antiquities Authority, came to the Ades Synagogue in the Nahlaot quarter of Jerusalem last week. He approached the northern wall of the synagogue, also known as the Great Synagogue Ades of the Glorious Aleppo Community, and with a surgical scalpel and infinite patience started gently to peel away layers of paint and putty. What Rontin's scalpel revealed was an...