"According to his theory, civilizations, like human beings, have life cycles that are marked by rises and falls". That theory belongs to Ibn Khaldoun not to Toyenbee.Ibn Khaldoun wrote that, in his "Muqaddima" 8 centuries ago, that civilazations are like individuals'; they are born, they grow, and finally they die. Toynbee is an intellectual thief. period.
Yemen's vice president reportedly lands in Aden (Reuters)
from the article: This is how we ruined Toynbee's theory