They evolve all the time and armies have to adapt to new threats and ways of fighting. Asymmetric warfare - the clash between a uniformed conventional army and insurgents wearing mufti fighting in non-conventional ways - was already old when the Spanish guerilla fought Napolean's troops in the Peninsular War. Western armies have had to fight these from Cyprus, Kenya and Vietnam through to N Ireland, Iraq and Afghanistan. Much has been learned, though only now is the US changing its tactics in Afghanistan to counter-insurgency (CI) ones. The CI emphasis is on protecting and aiding the civilian while hunting the insurgents down, so separating the insurgency from its base. The means are principally infantry warfare, backed by sophisticated C3, recce and intel. Air strikes are a last resort, indirect fire (artillery, naval, mortar) is never used on civilian areas and full restraint is required where there are human shields. Israel hasn't begun to understand CI warfare.
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Preliminary report: Shooting attack in East Jerusalem's Damascus Gate (Haaretz)
from the article: A license to kill