Thanks for bringing up the original Polybios. Of course I am well familiar with his work. RE: His attitide that democracy means more than just elections, he wrote: "A state in which the mass of citizens is free to do whatever it pleases or takes into its head is not a democracy." (P.30, Rise of the Roman Empire, Penguin Classics)) Meaning, simply having elections, without a constitution of some sort, within the context of which majority rule can prevail, leads to mob rule. Yes, Polybios wrote of the cycle of rule, but as possiblities, not inevitabilities. "Every kind of state...is LIABLE to decline from two sources, the one being external, and the other due to its internal evolution." (P.350,Id) "Liable" because it's not inevitable. He was warning the Romans that they would decline if they stopped respecting their old Republican traditions and began regarding their confederates/allies as inferior beings. This all applies equally to the US and Israel today.
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Israeli man wounded in stabbing in central Jerusalem; circumstances still unclear (Haaretz)
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