1) My question: Was the Islamic golden age namely the Islamic enlightenment from the 9th to the 11th centuries, based in any type of secularism, or the other way around, Islam as a total way of life dominated the life of all Muslims including its intellectuls. 2) Europe is defined nowadys by Jurgen Habermas as a post secular society. Even the Canadian multiculturalist Charles Taylor suggest that the new secular Europe should give a place to religion. This does not mean that the separation between state and religion should not be preserved, but should shift from the dominance of a secularist state to the American version of liberalism. Freedom to all religious sects. For the American constitution Secularism is one of the vast variety of religious sects that should enjoy freedom.
First refugees travelling on Hungarian bus arrive at Austrian border (Reuters)
from the article: Why Israel must become a secular state: a thought for Yom Kippur 5770