The 'iron law of oligarchy' is a political theory, first developed by the German syndicalist sociologist Robert Michels in his 1911 book, Political Parties. It states that all forms of organization, regardless of how democratic or autocratic they may be at the start, will eventually and inevitably develop into oligarchies. The reasons for this are the technical indispensability of leadership, the tendency of the leaders to organize themselves and to consolidate their interests; the gratitude of the led towards the leaders, and the general immobility and passivity of the masses.
Germany warns of possible attacks on public transport in Istanbul (Reuters)
from the article: Palestinian factions DFLP, PFLP attempt to mediate between Hamas, Fatah