In phone conversation, European Union foreign policy chief Federica Mogherini invites Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to EU headquarters in Brussels.21:32 12.02.16 | 0 comments
When Tariq and Musa invaded Spain in 711, they did not name it Iberia. It had been called that by the Romans, who had taken it from the Celtiberians. In Arabic, the region was known as Al-Andalus (from Andalucia, southern Spain). There were many kingdoms throughout Muslim Spain, the reconquista began in Asturias in 911 and until 1492, with the conquest of the last Muslim stronghold, Granads, cities and territories changed from Muslim to Christian hands and vice versa. During all this, there was much cultural give and take. Despite occasional clean-up campaigns, the reign of the Muslims added greatly to the land's cultural and scientific heritage. The Middle Ages returned with the Spanish Inquisition, when the atmosphere of learning, culture and cosmopolitanism was squelched most cruelly. The Jews were exiled by the Catholic monarchs in 1492, Muslims who did not convert were expulsed later. It is a fascinating period in European history and worthy of much study.