"The state commission of inquiry into the clashes between security forces and Israeli civilians," to give it its official name, was appointed by Supreme Court President Aharon Barak on November 15, 2000 - one month after 13 Arabs and one Jew were killed and hundreds hurt in these clashes.

The public hearings, headed by Justice Theodor Or, continued for two and a half years, from February 2001 to August 2002. A total of 92 public hearings were held, 435 testimonies were heard from 377 witnesses (some of whom were called to the stand more than once), 4,289 exhibits were brought before the court, while the protocol goes on for 16,000 pages.

At the end of February 2002, following the close of the first stage of the commission's hearings, the panel wrote warning letters to 14 people who held senior positions at the time of the clashes: two politicians, nine police officers and three leaders of the Arab community. The most senior of those who received a warning letter was former prime minister Ehud Barak, while the least senior was Border Police officer Rashad Morshad, who fired a rubber-coated bullet that caused the death of a young Arab man.

The second stage of the hearings, which began in June 2002, concentrated on the allegations against these 14 people and their defense.

The commission's budget totaled NIS 3.6 million. Apart from the three members, Theodor Or, Hashim Khatib and Shimon Shamir, seven people were hired to collect information and two additional people dealt with administrative duties.