BOSTON — In a faded black-and-white photograph from 1937, the architect and Bauhaus school founder Walter Gropius, bare-chested and wearing a broad-brim straw hat, is held aloft by his wife, Ise, and a few of their friends: the artist and designer Alexander “Xanti” Schawinsky, the architect Marcel Breuer and the designer Herbert Bayer. The beach is not in Germany, as...