The synagogue in the eastern German city of Dresden was desecrated with swastikas, ahead of the anniversary of Kristallnacht, German police said on Sunday.
Roughly six meters of the synagogue's exterior wall was vandalized with the Nazi symbol, despite regular round-the-clock police surveillance.
Heinz-Joachim Aris of the Association of Jewish Communities in Saxony expressed shock at the deed.
A police investigation has been launched.
November 9, 1938 is remembered as Kristallnacht - Night of Broken Glass. On that night, Germans destroyed Jewish shops and houses, accelerating the systematic persecution of Jews in Nazi Germany.
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