The Impact of Man: 4,000 Years of Environmental Damage at Acre

Forget the gauzy notion that early settlers existed in harmony with the environment. Urbanization was destructive, archaeologists in Israel have shown.

Some 5,000 years ago, the Mediterranean seaport city of Akko started to come into being. Following millennia of sparse habitation, an urbanized population built a stone rampart fortification on Tel Akko, also known as Napoleon Hill. The tell is situated at the south-eastern entrance to the modern city of Akko, or Acre as it was called during the British Mandate.